Commercial proposition

Hevc better, faster, stronger

Now that the market is overflowing with UHD TV, and even 4K content is starting to pop up, H.264 is no longer up to the challenge. We need a solution that can compress and distribute ultra HD video with maximum quality through channels that are not yet ready for such loads.

This solution has been called H.265 or HEVC, and was first introduced to the general public at MWC 2012 by Qualcomm. The standard proved to be incredibly efficient even at that time.

How does compression work?

To understand how most compression algorithms work, let’s take the example of packing a suitcase. When it gets too heavy, we take out any unnecessary things. The same is true for video — the fewer repeated and unimportant elements it has, the easier it is to carry.

1. Entropy coding

Any ordered sequence can be grouped like this until there are no more data blocks left that can be compressed further. Or to say it another way, until the sequence of zeros and ones becomes absolutely random. This is why this type of coding has been named Entropy Coding. It should be mentioned, though, that the information itself is not affected. We only transform how it is represented and reduce the redundancy.

Entropy coding

2. Frequency decomposition

Anyone who is at least a little bit familiar with Computer Science knows its main principle — data received in the form of zeros and ones can be converted into any other system, whether decimal, hexadecimal or even alphabetic. A 2D image is also a particular type of data that can be converted from one coordinate system to another. For example, we are used to viewing an image in X-Y coordinates (length-width). This type of representation is called a spatial domain. The value of each pixel in it is based on its position. We can convert this image into a frequency domain, where we don’t evaluate the position of pixels, but rather how their value changes relative to the neighboring ones. The higher the contrast of the areas, the higher their coordinate is on freqX-freqY axes. This is how the same image looks when converted from the X-Y system to freqX-freqY.

Frequency decomposition

• Low-frequency components are located nearer to the center of our matrix. They are responsible for homogenous areas with gradual luma and chroma transitions.

• High-frequency ones are located closer to the edges. These include all contours, razor edges, and fine details.

After this transformation, we can simply crop the edges of our matrix, or in other words, mask it. When we convert the image to the usual form, it will lose some details, but in general will remain similar to the original one.

When we select the necessary mask size and form, we can control these losses and the degree to which the final file is compressed. Below is the same car, but now circular masks are applied to it.

Frequency decomposition

3. Chroma subsampling

When an image is transmitted to a TV screen, the RGB color scheme is converted into YCbCr, where Y is the luma component and Cb and Cr are the blue and red components of the color scheme, or chroma components. A human eye can perceive even the smallest fluctuations in brightness, but it isn’t as good at recognizing shades. Therefore, if we transmit luma information in full resolution, and the color component in reduced resolution, no one will notice, and bandwidth is reduced. Coding a signal in Y’CbCr reduces the data volume almost by half.

There are several chroma subsampling methods. Each of them is designated by a numeric code that describes chroma resolution (2nd and 3rd) relative to luma resolution (1st).

4:4:4 (YUV) FORMAT

The colored dot consists of luma (Y’) and chroma (Cr and Cb) components. In this case, there are four components of each color for every four luma components. This is how non-compressed RGB images are usually represented. Theoretically, the 4:4:4 formula can be used in Y’CbCr, but there is no practical need for using this format.

4:4:4 (YUV) FORMAT

4:2:2 (YUY2) FORMAT

The ratio of luma resolution to chroma resolution is 4:2. This is the traditional broadcasting format used by DigiBeta, DVCpro50, and others.

4:2:2 (YUY2) FORMAT

4:1:1 (YV12) FORMAT

The ratio of chroma component resolution to luma is reduced by a factor of 4. This system is used in NTSC DV and PAL DVCPro.

4:1:1 (YV12) FORMAT

4:2:0 (YV12) FORMAT

Component resolution depends on whether interlaced or frame scanning is used. It is often used for transmitting Н264 via the Internet, PAL DV, MPEG2, and various software solutions.

4:2:0 (YV12) FORMAT

4. Motion compensation

In almost any video, each frame is similar to the previous one. They have a common, nearly static background, and only some objects move relative to others. It seems quite natural to want to code only those elements that change, but not the ones that stay the same. This example illustrates how similar all the subsequent frames are.

Motion compensation

How does the algorithm work?

Motion compensation

Н.265 versus H.264

Why does an Н.265 coded video of maximum quality take up to 40-50 percent less bandwidth than the same H.264 video? What’s more, the technology supports resolutions up to 8K and 10-bit color coding. Such an impressive leap in efficiency has become possible due to three key structural improvements:

1. Clean Random Access.
Decoding a randomly selected frame does not require decoding previous frames. The H.265 format does not require inserting any intermediate frames (I-frames), which reduces the bit rate of a video.

2. Change in maximum block size.
With H.264, the maximum block size is 256 pixels (16х16). But with H.265, it increases 16-fold to 4,096 pixels (64х64), and the algorithm determines the block size automatically.

Н.265 versus H.264

3. Parallel decoding. The new format benefits from the characteristics of multi-core processors.
Н.265 can calculate different parts of the same frame simultaneously. The processing speed increases by several times.

Where is НEVC already used

1. Coding
HEVC is currently supported on many software and hardware encoders like Nvidia NVENC and Intel QSV. H265 can sometimes be seen on satellite television, IP cameras, and various devices for capturing and coding HDMI (this is especially popular with game streaming when you don’t want to increase the load on your computer).

2. Play Back
You can currently encounter H.265 on IP cameras. Also, there are 30-megabit channels compressed into H.265 on satellites. Little by little, attempts are being made to implement it in various OTT services, where there is device control.

3. Broadcasting
The format is gaining popularity especially quickly on set-top boxes and Smart TVs. The situation with desktop browsers is less promising so far, in fact, only Microsoft Edge is currently able to play H.265. On modern smartphones, H.265 is likely to be played on the processor, meaning your battery will die before you have finished watching even a short video.

Where is НEVC already used

Infomir was one of the first companies to embed HEVC technology in its set-top boxes. Due to this, we can already see the advantages of the standard in real-life examples.

Where is НEVC already used

Is HEVC going to revolutionize IPTV/OTT services? Probably not. Formats aren’t replaced overnight. Н.264 will remain an active market player for a long time, but will slowly give way to its logical successor. However, we can say with certainty that the future belongs to Н.265. Be ready for it with Infomir!

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Privacy Policy

This Privacy Policy will be effective as of May 25, 2018.

What This Policy Covers

We respect the confidentiality of your personal data and take measures to safeguard it. This Policy describes the information we collect, how we use that information, our legal basis for doing so, and your rights regarding the information we collect. We also use cookies and similar technologies, as described in our Cookie Policy, which is an integral part of this Privacy Policy.

Who We Are

When we refer to “we”, “our” or “us” in this Policy, we mean the company Telecommunication Technologies LLC, which acts as a controller of the information that is being collected from you. We list our contact details, as well as the contact details of our EU representative, at the end of this Policy.

What We Collect

In the course of our business activities, we collect certain personal data as described below.

  • Information you provide by filling out forms on our websites. When you fill out forms on our websites, we collect the information that you enter in these forms, which includes your name, email and postal address, telephone number, country of residence.
  • Information you provide when entering into a contract with us or otherwise request our services. We collect your name, email and postal address, telephone number, country of residence, MAC address and serial number of your device that you provide to us in the process of negotiation, execution or performance of contracts (e.g. supply or technical support).
  • Information we collect when you visit our websites. We may collect information about your device and how you use our website, including IP address; the type of device you are using; platform type; operating system version; mobile device’s identifiers; your browser type and language; URLs of websites that you visit; the number of clicks on an web page; the amount of time spent on web page; pages viewed on our website.

    We use cookies and other similar technologies to collect such data. We may use third-party services, such as Google Analytics, that collect, monitor and analyze this type of information in order to increase the functionality of our website, and Google AdWords to optimize the delivery of ad content specifically targeted to your interests based upon previous visits to our website. You can opt out of being included in Google Analytics and Google AdWords here.

    You can also set your browser to refuse all or some browser cookies, or to alert you when websites set or access cookies. If you disable or refuse cookies, please note that some parts of this website may become inaccessible or not function properly. For more information about the cookies we use, please see our Cookie Policy

Lawful Basis and Use of Collected Information

We process personal date based on several lawful grounds:

  • Performance of the contract we have with you. This also includes negotiation of a prospective contract. We use your personal data to provide you goods and services under the contract, communicate with you regarding the contract and otherwise exercise our rights and perform obligations related to the contract.
  • Our legitimate interests. We use personal data collected from you to realise and protect our legitimate interests.

    We use identity, device, and location information to prevent fraud and abuse and to prevent security breaches.

    We analyse how users interact with our websites so that we can understand where they need to be improved in order to enhance the quality of the online experience of the websites visitors.

    We use your personal data for direct marketing purposes to provide you with the best offers and current information on our business activities.

    We use your personal data, in particular device and location identification, to protect our intellectual property rights and prevent counterfeiting of our products.

How We Share Information We Collect

We do not normally share with third parties personal information we collect. However, in some cases, we may share the information where it is necessary or obligatory.

  • Service providers. It may be necessary to share some of personal information with third-party service providers (e.g. delivery or payment processing services). We may share this information solely to the reasonably necessary extent (e.g. to deliver products in the course of performance of a contract).
  • Affiliates, successors and assigns. We may share personal information with our affiliated companies in the course of normal business activities (e.g., where it may be necessary to perform a contract). Personal information may also get into possession of another controller as a result of a merger, acquisition or another business transaction. We will inform you of this in advance and ensure that your personal information is secure.
  • Legal requirements. We may share personal information to comply with law or law enforcement, to prevent fraud or abuse, or to protect our legal rights and interests.

How Long We Keep Information

How long we keep information we collect about you depends on the legal basis and purpose for which the information has been collected and is being stored. After such time, we will either delete or anonymise your information or, if this is not possible (for example, because the information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your information and isolate it from any further use until deletion is possible.

  • Performance of a contract. If the information has been collected on the basis and for the purpose of negotiation, conclusion or performance of a contract between you and us, then we will keep this information during the period of negotiations of the contract and, if the contract is entered into, during the contract performance or its effective term. We may also continue to keep this information for five years after the end of the contract negotiations or for five years after the expiration or termination of the contract in case any legal dispute occurs and to the extent it may be necessary to protect us from any legal claims.
  • Legitimate interests. The information collected on the basis of our legitimate interests may be kept by us as long as we continue to pursue these interests. For example, if the information has been collected for the purpose of direct marketing, then we will keep this information as long as we continue to promote our products and services. You may notify us at any time that you object to your data being used by us for direct marketing, and we will expeditiously stop use of your information for this purpose. We may continue to keep some of this information for five years after we stop its use in case any legal dispute occurs and to the extent it may be necessary to protect us from any legal claims.

Your Rights

Data subjects residing in certain countries, including the EU, are afforded certain rights regarding their personal information. However, these rights are not unlimited and are subject to exceptions and exemptions. To exercise your rights, you can contact us at our email dataprivacy@infomir.com. These rights include:

  • Access to your data. You can clarify whether your data is being processed and ask us for a copy of your personal data in machine-readable form.
  • Change or correct your data. You can ask us to change, update or fix your data in certain cases, particularly if it is inaccurate.
  • Restrict processing or delete your data. In some cases, you can ask us to restrict processing of your data or delete all or some of your personal data.
  • Object to processing. If you believe that the collection or processing of your data is unlawful on grounds related to your situation, you can object to such collection or processing.
  • Data portability. In certain cases, you can transmit your data collected for to another controller or ask us to transmit your data to another controller.
  • Opt out of communications. You can opt out of receiving promotional communications from us by using the unsubscribe link within each email.
  • File a complaint with a supervisory authority. You may have the right to file a complaint with a relevant supervisory authority if you believe that your data protection rights are being infringed.

How We Protect Personal Data

While we implement safeguards designed to protect your information, no security system is impenetrable and due to the inherent nature of the Internet, we cannot guarantee that data, during transmission through the Internet or while stored on our systems or otherwise in our care, is absolutely safe from intrusion by others. We will respond to requests about this within a reasonable timeframe.

Our Policy Towards Minors

We do not knowingly collect personal information from natural persons under 18. If we become aware that a natural person under 18 has provided us with personal information, we will take steps to delete such information. If you become aware that such a person has provided us with personal information, please contact us promptly.

Changes to Our Privacy Policy

We may change our Privacy Policy from time to time. We will inform you in advance to your email address of any changes and their effective date.

Contact Information

If you have any questions or complaints regarding this Policy or you want to exercise your data protection related rights, you can communicate with us at the email address dataprivacy@infomir.com or by post at the addresses below:

Controller:

Telecommunication Technologies LLC
1 Mytna Square
Odesa 65026
Ukraine

EU representative:

Infomir OÜ
Rävala pst. 8, kabinet A312
Tallinn 10143
Estonia

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